# What is Accounting Equation?

As a refresher of the accounting equation, allasset accountshave debit balances andliabilityandequity accountshave credit balances. Here’s an example of how each T-account is structured in the accounting equation. To determine whether to debit or credit a specific account, we use either the accounting equation approach , or the classical approach . Whether a debit increases or decreases an account’s net balance depends on what kind of account it is.

The credit is the larger of the two sides (\$4,000 on the credit side as opposed to \$2,500 on the debit side), so the Accounts Payable account has a credit balance of \$1,500. The customer did not immediately pay for the services and owes Printing Plus payment. This money will be received in the future, increasing Accounts Receivable. Therefore, Accounts Receivable will increase for \$5,500 on the debit side. Notice that for this entry, the rules for recording journal entries have been followed. To reduce the normal credit balance in stockholders’ equity accounts, a debit will be needed. Hence, the accounts such as Rent Expense, Advertising Expense, etc. will have their balances on the left side.

If the expenses are larger, the company has a net loss. Debits and credits are the system to record transactions.

## Debits and Credits by Account

Assets are on the left side of the accounting equation. The next activity should help you to understand the importance of both forms of the accounting equation. Cash flow isn’t considered in the accounting equation. You don’t need to use the company’s Cash Flow Statement to compute the accounting equation. Increase in an income account will be recorded via a credit entry. Increase in a loss account will be recorded via a debit entry. A T-account is a visual depiction of what a general ledger account looks like.

### Which of the following accounts are examples of revenues?

Examples of revenue accounts include: Sales, Service Revenues, Fees Earned, Interest Revenue, Interest Income.

Metro Corporation collected a total of \$5,000 on account from clients who owned money for services previously billed. Metro Corporation earned a total of \$10,000 in service revenue from clients who will pay in 30 days. We want to increase the asset Cash and increase the revenue account Service Revenue. The new corporation purchased new asset for \$8,500 and paid cash. We want to increase the asset Equipment and decrease the asset Cash since we paid cash. The new corporation purchased new asset for \$5,500 and paid cash. For example, a company uses \$400 worth of utilities in May but is not billed for the usage, or asked to pay for the usage, until June.

## Journal Entries And Their Importance

The corporation paid \$300 in cash and reduced what they owe to Office Lux. Metro issued a check to Office Lux for \$300 previously purchased supplies on account. We want to increase the asset Supplies and increase what we owe with the liability Accounts Payable. Metro purchased supplies on account from Office Lux for \$500.

Owner’s equity is also referred to as shareholder’s equity for a corporation. This is the value of money that the business owners can get after all liabilities are paid off if the business shuts down. This may be in the form of shared capital or outstanding shares of stocks. Examples of equity are capital and retained earnings.

## General ledgers

When the company issues stock, stockholders purchase common stock, yielding a higher common stock figure than before issuance. The common stock account is increasing and affects equity. Looking at the expanded accounting equation, we see that Common Stock increases on the credit side. With double-entry accounting, the accounting equation should always be in balance. In other words, not only will debits be equal to credits, but the amount of assets will be equal to the amount of liabilities plus the amount of owner’s equity.

We know from the accounting equation that assets increase on the debit side and decrease on the credit side. If there was a debit of \$5,000 and a credit of \$3,000 in the Cash account, we would find the difference between the two, which is \$2,000 (5,000 – 3,000). The debit is the larger of the two sides (\$5,000 on the debit side as opposed to \$3,000 on the credit side), so the Cash account has a debit balance of \$2,000. You can see at the top is the name of the account “Cash,” as well as the assigned account number “101.” Remember, all asset accounts will start with the number 1.

If you use single-entry accounting, you track your assets and liabilities separately. You only enter the transactions once rather than show the impact of the transactions on two or more accounts. Accounting is an essential part of running a business.

## Journal entry examples

Every transaction demonstrates the relationship of the elements and shows how balance is maintained. As you can see, all of the journal entries are posted to their respective T-accounts. The debits for each transaction are posted on the left side while the credits are posted on the right side. In this example, the column balances are tallied, so you can understand how the T-accounts work. The account balances are calculated by adding the debit and credit columns together. This sum is typically displayed at the bottom of the corresponding side of the account.

• Cash is not instantly received from the credit card company, so the sale is a \$7 increase to AR and a \$7 increase to sales revenue.
• This is a liability the company did not have before, thus increasing this account.
• Retained earnings may have a debit balance due to income statement losses.
• Here are the different ways the basic accounting equation is used in real-life situations.
• A number of T accounts are typically clustered together to show all of the accounts affected by an accounting transaction.

So, every dollar of revenue an organization generates increases the overall value of the organization. Company ZZK plans to buy office equipment that is \$500 but only has \$250 cash to use for the purchase. The remaining amount will be billed at a later time. An amount recorded on the right side of the T account. The following shows the order of the accounts in the accounting system.

## Posting of Journal Entries to T

The customer does not pay immediately for the services but is expected to pay at a future date. This creates an Accounts Receivable for Printing Plus.

• The accounting equation balances because the company recorded equal amounts of debits (\$550) and credits (\$550).
• Typically revenue is earned when an item ships and the sale is recorded in accounts receivable.
• Cash activities are a large part of any business, and the flow of cash in and out of the company is reported on the statement of cash flows.
• Looking at the expanded accounting equation, we see that Common Stock increases on the credit side.
• A T-account is a visual depiction of what a general ledger account looks like.
• This is posted to the Common Stock T-account on the credit side .

The claims to the assets owned by a business entity are primarily divided into two types – the claims of creditors and the claims of owner of the business. In accounting, the claims of creditors are referred to as liabilities and the claims of owner are referred to as owner’s equity. Can also be referred to as net worth—the value of the organization. The concept of equity does not change depending on the legal structure of the business .

The T account shows that there will be a debit of \$10,000 to the rent expense account, as well as a corresponding \$10,000 credit to the accounts payable account. This initial transaction shows that the company has incurred an expense as well as a liability to pay that expense. Once the https://wolfcreeksafetysolutions.com/2019/08/20/assets-definition-and-meaning/ journal entries have been made in the general journal, the next step is to post them to their individual t-accounts in the general ledger. As discussed in the previous step, journal entries are used to record a business transaction and subsequently a change in the accounting equation.

• The residual value of assets is also what an owner can claim after all the liabilities are paid off if the company has to shut down.
• We calculate the expanded accounting equation using 2021 financial statements for this example.
• The accounting equation still makes adds up properly math-wise.
• Looking back, we see that Ed owes the bank \$25,000 and his employee \$15,000.
• One problem with T-accounts is that they can be easily manipulated to show a desired result.

If you are not familiar with debits and credits or if you want a better understanding, we will provide a few insights to help you. We will also provide links to our visual tutorial, quiz, puzzles, etc. that will further assist you. The September 6 purchase of supplies results in an increase in the company’s resources and an equal increase fundamental accounting equation in the company’s sources of resources . Since the company owes \$550 for the supplies, the source of resources that increases is liabilities, as shown below. Closing stock is not included in the trial balance as it does not reflect a transaction that has a dual aspect – it is merely the purchases that have not been sold in the year.

If there is any opening stock it is included in the trial balance at the year end. Equity is named Owner’s Equity, Shareholders’ Equity, or Stockholders’ Equity on the balance sheet.

Therefore expense accounts will have their balances on the left side. This increases the company’s asset account Accounts Receivable. Stockholders’ equity account balances should be on the right side of the accounts. We will use the accounting equation to explain why we sometimes debit an account and at other times we credit an account.

Transactions to the revenue account will be mostly credits, as revenue totals are constantly increasing. The ending balance for a revenue account will be a credit. Increases and decreases of the same account type are common with assets. The equipment account will increase and the cash account will decrease.

Profits and losses are recorded in the retained earnings equity account, typically on a quarterly and yearly basis. Just like common stock, the account increases with a credit and decreases with a debit.

The terminology does, however, change slightly based on the type of entity. For example, investments by owners are considered “capital” transactions for sole proprietorships and partnerships but are considered “common stock” transactions for corporations. Likewise, distributions to owners are considered “drawing” transactions for sole proprietorships and partnerships but are considered “dividend” transactions for corporations. Revenue is almost always going to be a credit transaction, but revenue can also be decreased with a debit as needed. A business might need to reduce the revenue account if a sale is returned. Let’s say someone thought a \$7 coffee paid for in cash was a complete waste of money and demands a refund.